From apo and didomi; to give away, i.
The duty of obedience is grounded upon the fact that the power wielded by the magistrate is derived from God, and that duty itself is stated without qualification. What are we to understand by this? Are we to say, for instance, that Hampden was wrong in refusing the payment of ship-money?
Or if he was not wrong--and the verdict of mankind has generally justified his act--what are we to think of the language that is here used by St. In the first place it should be noticed that though the duty of obedience is here stated without qualification, still the existence of qualifications to it is not therefore denied or excluded.
Tribute is to be paid to whom tribute is due. But this still leaves the question open, whether in any particular case tribute is rightfully due or not.
There may possibly be a conflict of rights and duties, and the lower may have to yield to the higher. All that is alleged is that, prima facie, the magistrate can claim the obedience of the subject. But supposing the magistrate calls upon the subject to do that which some other authority co-ordinate with that of the magistrate forbids--supposing, for instance, as in the case of Hampden, under a constitutional monarchy, the king commands one thing, and the Parliament another--there is clearly a conflict of obligations, and the decision which accepts the one obligation is not necessarily wrong because it ignores the other.
There will always be a certain debatable ground within which opposite duties will seem to clash, and where general principles are no longer of any avail.
Here the individual conscience must assume the responsibility of deciding which to obey.
We are not called upon to enter into the casuistry of the subject. It may only be well to add one caution. Any such seemingly direct collision of duties must be at the very lightest a most serious and difficult matter; and though the burden of deciding falls ultimately on the individual, still he must be careful to remember that his particular judgment is subject to that fallibility to which, all individual judgments are liable.
Where the precept is appealed to, "Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's," one man will say that the particular point in question comes under the first head, another that it comes under the second.
In either case a great responsibility is assumed, and it is especially desirable that the judgment of the individual should be fortified by the consent of others, if possible by the suffrages of the majority of those who are in a position to judge.
It is one thing to say that a conflict of duties may arise, and that the higher is to be obeyed. It is another thing to say that in a certain given case such conflict has arisen, and that the duty which commends itself to the individual is the higher of the two.
Whatever the decision arrived at, it ought not to be made in a spirit of levity, nor ought it to be supposed that the dictum of the single conscience bears anything like the same validity as the universal principles of morals.
And there will be the further drawback, that in such cases the individual usually acts as judge in his own cause, where his conscience is pretty sure to be biased. There is therefore a very strong onus probandi thrown upon the person who takes upon himself to overrule what is in itself a clear obligation.
But the question of political obedience cannot be rightly considered without taking into account the relation of Christianity to political life generally, neither can this isolated passage in an Epistle of St.
Paul's be considered apart from other teaching upon the same subjects in the rest of the New Testament. Very similar language, it will be remembered, is found in 1Peter 2: And going back to the fountain-head of Christian doctrine, we find, indeed, no express statements, but several significant facts and some important intimations.
When He was arrested by the civil power, and unjustly tried and condemned, our Lord made no resistance. Not only so, but when resistance was made on His behalf, He rebuked the disciple who had drawn the sword for Him. When the didrachma was demanded of Him, which it was customary for the Jew to pay towards the repair and maintenance of the Temple, He, though as Lord of the Temple He claimed exemption, nevertheless, for fear of putting a stumbling-block in the way of others, supplied the sum required by a miracle.
On another occasion, when a question was asked as to the legitimacy of the Roman tribute, He replied in words already quoted, "Render to Caesar the things which are Caesar's, and to God the things which are God's. So far as His practice was concerned, our Lord pursued a course of simple obedience; into the theory of political or civil obligation He absolutely refused to enter.
It was practically a refusal to reply at all. The significance of this comes out very strikingly when it is contrasted with the state of feeling and opinion current among the Jews at the same time.
With them politics and religion were intimately blended. They carried into the former sphere the fanaticism natural to the latter. Their religious hopes took a political form.
The dominion of the Messiah was to be not a spiritual, but a literal dominion, in which they, as a people, were to share.Introduction A Commentary on Romans 13 Romans and 1 Peter A Brief Comparison Selected Bibliography Introduction The Purpose of the Study We live in a generation in which public opinion of those in political leadership is .
() Subject unto the higher powersLooking impartially at the passage which follows, it would seem at first sight--and perhaps not only at first sight--that the Apostle distinctly preaches two doctrines, both of which are now discredited, the doctrines of divine right and of passive obedience.
The Epistle to the Romans or Letter to the Romans, often shortened to Romans, is the sixth book in the New barnweddingvt.comal scholars agree that it was composed by the Apostle Paul to explain that salvation is offered through the gospel of Jesus barnweddingvt.com is the longest of the Pauline epistles and is often considered his "most important theological legacy" and magnum opus.
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***THIS VOLUME IS OUT OF STOCK IN OUR US OFFICE AND WILL BE BACKORDERED AND SHIPPED UPON ARRIVAL*** Romans 12 shows us Christian men and women living out the new life given to them in Christ in relationship with their . 26 Notice the irony in Paul’s use of immortal (ἀφθάρτου) and mortal (φθαρτου`)..
27 The verb used in the LXX means "to have sex with," but the fact that they passed up Lot’s two daughters and instead demanded to have sex with the two angelic men reminds one of the very thing Paul is saying here in Romans 28 Cf.
Philo The Sacrifices of Abel . Romans (Romans Series) Vol 1: Exposition of Chapter 1 - The Gospel of God [Martyn Lloyd-Jones] on barnweddingvt.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
No New Testament Epistle is more foundational to the Christian faith than Romans, and no chapter in Romans more basic than its first chapter. To few chapters did Dr.
Lloyd-Jones give .