Concepts as mental representations The first of these views maintains that concepts are psychological entities, taking as its starting point the representational theory of the mind RTM. According to RTM, thinking occurs in an internal system of representation. Beliefs and desires and other propositional attitudes enter into mental processes as internal symbols. For example, Sue might believe that Dave is taller than Cathy, and also believe that Cathy is taller than Ben, and together these may cause Sue to believe that Dave is taller than Ben.
Introduction Criminologythe scientific study of criminals and criminal behavior. Criminologists attempt to build theories that explain why crimes occur and test those theories by observing behavior. Criminological theories help shape society's response to crime both in terms of preventing criminal behavior and responding to it after it occurs.
Development of Criminology The discipline of criminology has evolved in three phases, beginning in the 18th century.
Although crime and criminals have been around for as long as societies have existed, the systematic study of these phenomena did not begin until the late s. When scholars first distinguished crime from sin, they made possible explanations of criminal behavior that were not theological religious. This, in turn, allowed for the dispassionate, scientific study of why crime occurs.
The development of this study is now known as the era of classical criminology. The second phase, which began in the 19th century, is referred to as modern criminology. During this era, criminology distinguished itself as a subspecialty within the emerging disciplines of psychology, sociology, and economics.
Scholars formed criminological societies and founded criminology journals. Criminologists conducted empirical tests observations or experiments of their theories, rather than relying solely on speculation, and consequently developed a wide range of theories.
The third phase, beginning in the second half of the 20th century, may best be called independent criminology. During this period, criminology began to assert its independence from the traditional disciplines that spawned it. In Western Europe, the United States, and Canada, criminologists expanded their professional associations and published an increasing number of journals.
A number of universities developed graduate programs in criminology. Criminological theories have become more multidisciplinary spanning various fields of study because independent criminologists seek to understand crime itself rather than study crime as one aspect of an overall sociological or psychological theory.
Classical Criminology The issues of crime and punishment have aroused interest and discussion since ancient times. Scriptures dating from the 10th century BC prohibit certain acts and provide consequences for those who disobey these rules. In the 5th century BC Greek historian Thucydides wrote about the usefulness of the death penalty.
With the development of Christianity in the 1st century AD, questions of crime and punishment were almost always discussed in religious terms.
Christian thought tended to emphasize personal responsibility for wrongdoing; requiring penitence remorse by the criminal in exchange for salvation, or forgiveness, by God. Although punishment practices during the Middle Ages 5th century to 15th century were often brutal, the church generally had a moderating influence.
Christian philosophers expressed in their writings that the legitimate purpose of punishment was to reform and salvage the erring sinner.
It was not until the 18th century, however, that penal policy and thereby the understanding of crime was subject to systematic consideration.Vygotsky’s theory is one of the foundations of constructivism.
It asserts three major themes regarding social interaction, the more knowledgeable other, and the zone of proximal development. Social Interaction. Social interaction plays a fundamental role in the process of cognitive development.
CHAPTER 1 BASIC CONCEPTS OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT Developmental stages Prenatal germinal, embryonic, fetal Neonatal 2 to. Find Study Resources.
Main Menu; knowing and understanding the world • Personality development – social, psychological, moral, THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT 67%(3). cycle.
Personality Theories • Consistent or distinctive tendencies to behave in a certain way. Psychoanalytic Theory: Personality Development Social-Cognitive Theory • Albert Bandura – Reciprocal determinism • Cognitions, behaviors, environmental factors. cycle. Stage theories are usually characterized by the following: Human development occurs in clearly defined stages Each stage of life is qualitatively different from all other stages. Stages of development are sequential, with each stage building on earlier stages. Stages of development are universal. Explain the central concepts of social development theories Learning Objectives. After reading this chapter, you should be able to: Recognize how the process of social interaction contributes to criminal behavior Explain the central concepts of social development theories.
Stage theories are usually characterized by the following: Human development occurs in clearly defined stages Each stage of life is qualitatively different from all other stages. Stages of development are sequential, with each stage building on earlier stages. Stages of development are universal.
Social change, in sociology, the alteration of mechanisms within the social structure, characterized by changes in cultural symbols, rules of behaviour, social organizations, or value systems. Throughout the historical development of their discipline, sociologists have borrowed models of social.
In so doing, it provides indispensable analytic discussions of the concepts focal to contemporary debates such as social process, development, progress, social time, historical tradition, modernity, post-modernity, and globalization.
The Social Development Theory includes three major concepts. These are comprised of the Role of Social Interaction in Cognitive Development, the More Knowledgeable Other and the Zone of Proximal Development.